Wheel of Wellness
Myers et al. developed a "Wheel of Wellness" model that attempts to measure well-being, drawing from a range of disciplines including psychology, stress management, ecology, and contextualism. The model proposes five life tasks, depicted in a wheel, which are interrelated and interconnected. These five tasks are essence or spirituality, work and leisure, friendship, love, and self direction. The life task of self direction is further subdivided into the 12 tasks of (a) sense of worth, (b) sense of control, (c) realistic beliefs, (d) emotional awareness and coping (e) problem solving and creativity, (f) sense of humor, (g) nutrition, (h) exercise, (i) self care, (j) stress management, (k) gender identity, and (l) cultural identity.
The components are measured using the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL).
The study of well being have been an ongoing process. Since the 1943, a psychologist named Abraham Maslow studied "exemplary"people (Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Fredrick Douglass) rather than the conventional forms of studying solely mentally ill or neurotic people in the study of psychology. His resulting theory was published in 1954 titled Motivation and Personality which presented the very popular framework in sociology research, management training, and development; the Hierarchy of Needs. The framework's main objective is to demonstrate, by order of most fundamental and basic, the needs of people, communities, nations etc in development.
Improving and expanding upon this framework, the Wheel of Wellness defines wellness as a way of life oriented toward optimal health and well being in which body, mind, and spirit are integrated by the individual to live more fully within the human and natural community. It is the optimum state of health and well being that each individual is capable of achieving, ideally speaking.
The research and theoretical perspectives developed from personality, social, clinical, health and development psychology were foundations for the model, as were stress management, behavioral medicine, psychoneuroimmunology, ecology, and contextualism.
Ultimately, the Wheel of Wellness incorporated 16 characteristics of healthy people, depicted graphically using four concentric circles and 12 spokes, identified through medical and psychosocial research as important components of wellness through the life span. The goal is to help others live long and well.
- Hattie, J.A.; Myers, J.E.; Sweeney, T.J. (2004). "A factor structure of wellness: Theory, assessment, analysis and practice". Journal of Counseling and Development 82: 354–364.